Cultural Factor in International Affairs

The relationship between consumer behavior and culture in international trade is a strong and significant one. Behaviors and relationships play a crucial role in the international business world, where culture has a profound impact. Culture influences consumer behavior, and consumer behavior affects international trade among countries.

Numerous research studies and theories have been developed over time to understand how cultural studies affect international business. The fundamental aim is to comprehend how cultural research affects international business. Culture is learned and shared within society. People express their cultures by using their values, attitudes, and ideas. Culture is about human groups, not nations. International trade faces a cross-cultural risk, a situation or event that could threaten the value of a project or business venture by crossing cultural boundaries. Culture affects many management tasks, such as product and service development, the preparation of advertising and promotional materials, preparation for and participation in international trade shows and exhibitions, and interactions with current and potential customers.

Key topics to consider in this regard include:

  • Trade and Culture
  • Cultural Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior
  • Consequences of Global Marketing and Cultural Advertising
  • Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior
  • The Impact of Cultural Differences According to Hofstede

Understanding culture in Turkey can help boost export and trade activities. A product may be inconvenient or dysfunctional when it comes to a group or country that has similar products. For example, German cosmetics brand Rossmann was selling a pig bristle hairbrush for babies. The product was very popular in Europe but was a big issue in Muslim countries. Culture is closely related to religion. When choosing products for markets, religious and cultural differences in the target country should be taken into consideration. If a company does not take cultural differences into account and releases a product for sale without stating that pig bristles are used in Muslim countries, it may have to apologize for this situation and withdraw its products from the market. Conducting detailed research on the foreign company and country should be the first step to avoid such problems, which will be an effective method to increase efficiency in this trade.

Hofstede’s National Culture Typology describes whether an individual primarily functions as an individual or within a group. Power distance defines how a society copes with power inequalities among individuals. Uncertainty avoidance expresses how much risk and uncertainty individuals can tolerate in their lives. According to culture and Hofstede, companies should consider these cultural differences between countries.


  • De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research findings. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3-4), 181-192.
  • McCort, D. J., & Malhotra, N. K. (1993). Culture and consumer behavior: toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in international marketing. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 6(2), 91-127.
  • De Mooij, M. (2019). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. SAGE Publications Limited.
  • McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph
  • of faith-a failure of analysis. Human relations, 55(1), 89-118.

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